Porcelain | High Alumina | Steatite | Cordierite | Mullite | Macor | Zirconia | Ceramic Coating | Silicon Carbide | Titanium Dioxide | ZTA (Zirconia Toughened Alumina)

Mullite is an excellent material due to its high temperature stability, strength and creep resistance. It is similar to Cordierite, although it is not as good an insulator and has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion. It is commonly used in heater exchange parts and electrical insulators.

Property ASTM Method Units Mullite
Color Gray – Tan
Water Absorption C 20-97 % 0
Property ASTM Method Units Mullite
Density C 20-97 g/cc 3.00
Hardness Vickers 500 gm GPa (kg/mm 10 (1000)
Flexural Strength (MOR) (3 point) @ RTº F417-87 MPa (psi x 103) 206 (30)
Compressive Strength @ RTº MPa (psi x 103) 1034 (150)
Property ASTM Method Units Mullite
C.T.E., 25 – 100°C C 372-96 x10-6/°C 3.6
C.T.E., 25 – 600°C C 372-96 x10-6/°C 4.8
Thermal Conductivity @ RTº C 408 W/m-K 4
Max Use Temperature (Non-Loading)

(at high strength)

Celsius (°C) 1700
FEATURE OF COMPOSITION Zr02  – 95% ZrSi04  – 50%
APPLICATION RANGE High mechanical strength, exceptional wear resistance, good resistance to thermal shock. Good refractoriness and good thermal shock, resistance, suited for L.V. circuit breaker.
COLOUR Creamish Tan
POROSITY (Vol. %) 0 30
BULK DENSITY (g/cm2) 5.40 2.58
HARDNESS (Mohs Scale) 8
  Unglazed 220 35
(10-6 K-1)
a20 – 1000c 8.70 3.40
a20 – 3000c 9.50 3.10
a20 – 6000c 10.50 3.70
a20 – 8000c 11.00 4.00
E (D.C.)cm
200C 1014


MSZ (Magnesia-Stabilized Zirconia)

Transformation toughened zirconias such a Magnesia-Stabilized Zirconia have small precipitates of tetragonal phase which are formed inside of the cubic phase grains. These precipitates transform from the meta-stable tetragonal phase to the stable monoclinic phase when a crack attempts to propagate through the material. This causes the precipitate to expand and blunt the crack tip promoting toughness.
MSZ can be either ivory or yellow-orange in color due to differences in preparation of the raw material.

Ivory colored MSZ has a higher purity and offers slightly better mechanical properties.

MSZ is more stable in high temperature (220C and above), high moisture environments than YTZP – where YTZP typically degrades. MSZ has a low thermal conductivity and CTE similar to cast iron to prevent thermal mismatch in ceramic to metal assemblies. Due to the transformation toughening, STC’s partially stabilized MSZ provides excellent strength, toughness, wear, abrasion, and corrosion resistant materials to meet the severe service needs of many industries.

Prime Features
High mechanical strength High temperature resistance
Very high wear resistance Very high impact resistance
Very low thermal conductivity Thermal expansion suitable for ceramic-to-metal assemblies
High chemical resistance (acids/bases)
Typical Applications
Deep well, down hole components Wear parts
Structural ceramics Precision valve seats and seals
Roller guides for tube forming MWD tools
Bushings Wear sleeves
Pump pistons Pump sleeves
Spray nozzles Ceramic bearings

CSZ (Ceria Stabilized Zirconia)

Consider CSZ a top candidate when choosing a material for high strength and toughness in moist, challenging environments. With high flexural strength and very high compressive strength this material is ideally suited as a structural component in sensors, instrumentation, probes, pumps and fluid control systems.

Prime Features
CSZ offers a more robust Stabilized Zirconia material when low temperature degradation properties are in question, displaying a reduced vulnerability of molecular water attack compared to YTZP or MSZ, The ability of this material to withstand high temperature, wet operating conditions elevates its performance above other ceramic materials.

Typical Applications
Instrumentation Sensors
Seals Bearings
Desalination plant components Steam system instrumentation
Boiler probes Underwater sensors
Pump pistons Medical instrumentation
Pump liners Valve seats
Emission sensors Marine system components
Chemical pumps Fluid metering pumps
Fluid control valves Chemical analysis fluid control systems